翻譯真題D29|2004(英1)-語言與思維是什么關系呢?

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Day29  2004年英語一 

(1/3) The relation of language and mind has interested philosophers for many centuries.(1)The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.(2/3) Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their own. Two anthropologist-linguists, Franz Boas and Edward Sapir, were pioneers in describing many native languages of North and South America during the first half of the twentieth century.(2)We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. Other linguists in the earlier part of this century, however, who were less eager to deal with bizarre >(3)The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data. Native American languages are indeed different, so much so in fact that Navajo could be used by the US military as a code during World War II to send secret messages.(3/3) Sapir’s pupil, Benjamin Lee Whorf, continued the study of American Indian languages.(4)Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society. He reasoned that because it is easier to formulate certain concepts and not others in a given language, the speakers of that language think along one track and not along another.(5)Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society. Later, this idea became to be known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, but this term is somewhat inappropriate. Although both Sapir and Whorf emphasized the diversity of languages, Sapir himself never explicitly supported the notion of linguistic determinism.

全文分析

提醒:請首先自己翻譯,再對照我們的分析和參

1.The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.[分析]The Greeks assumed (本句主干主謂,assume可以譯為“認為”)|that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought,(that的賓語從句,翻譯時可以在that斷句加逗號。請大家注意,我們說的切分處,原則上都可以加逗號斷句)|which took root in Europe long before people realized(which引導的定語從句,翻譯時把狀語long before后面提前到謂語前。請大家思考這里的which指代和修飾什么?應該是修飾前面整句話,所以譯為這個觀點)|how diverse languages could be.(how引導的賓語從句,其實改成疑問句就是:how diverse could languages be?) 2.We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. [分析]We are obliged to them (本句主干,需要分析這里的them的指代對象。應該是指上一句的兩個語言學家)|because some of these languages have since vanished, (原因狀語從句)|as the peoples who spoke them (who引導的定語從句修飾people,注意這里的them指代是languages)|died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.(這是as的狀語從句中的三個謂語。注意這里的并列關系,其實became和lost一個層次,然后和died out構成選擇關系。雖然翻譯時基本順譯就行了,其實是有個層次關系。) 3.The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data. [分析]The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia (這是本句的主干,注意幾個細節。Described和studied翻譯時最好把被動意思譯出來;strikingly譯為“顯著的”)|that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.(這句話從結構上來說雖然不復雜,就是一個so that的結果狀語從句。但是這篇文章考察的幾個人名翻譯,請大家注意音譯的原則。曾經看到有同學翻譯Boas為“寶兒”。可不能瞎整!) 4.Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society. [分析]Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, (這是本句的非謂做狀語,be的邏輯主語是后面的Whorf,翻譯時也可補上)|Whorf developed the idea(這是本句的主干,注意人名的翻譯。)|that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.(這是that引導的同位語從句,翻譯時可以加“即”,我們的譯文是用特殊標點符號。) 5.Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society. [分析]Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism (這是本句的主干;determinism譯為“決定論”)|which, in its strongest form, states (在這個which的定語從句中,謂語是states,但是加了個插入語:in its strongest form,譯為“最極端的說法”)|that language imprisons the mind, (這是state的賓語從句,其中imprison本意是囚禁,這里處理為“禁錮”)|and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society.(兩個并列的that賓語從句,注意兩個介詞短語in和for的翻譯調序,一個調到patterns前,一個調到produce前)

參考譯文

許多世紀以來哲學家一直對語言與思維的關系頗感興趣。(1)希臘人認為,語言結構與思維過程之間存在著某種聯系。這一觀點在人們尚未認識到語言的千差萬別以前就早已在歐洲扎下了根。直到最近語言學家才開始認真研究與自己的母語截然不同的語言。兩位人類學家、語言學家佛朗茨·博厄斯和愛德華·薩皮爾在二十世紀上半葉描述了北美和南美許多土著語言,在這方面他們堪稱先驅。

(2)我們之所以感激他們(兩位無驅),是因為在此之后,這些(土著)語言中有一些已經不復存在了,這是由于說這些語言的部族或是消亡了,或是被同化而喪失了自己的本族語言。不過,在該世紀早期其他語言學家并不那么熱心處理“異域”語言中的怪異數據,因此他們常不被人們所稱道。(3)這些新近被描述的語言與已經得到充分研究的歐洲和東南亞地區的語言往往差別顯著,以至于有些學者甚至指責博厄斯和薩皮爾編造了材料。美洲土著語言的確十分特異,納瓦霍語實際上在二戰中可以被美軍用作密碼發密碼電報。

薩皮爾的學生本杰明·李·沃夫繼續研究美洲印第安人的語言。(4)沃夫對語言與思維的關系很感興趣,逐漸形成了這樣的觀點:在一個社會中,語言的結構決定習慣思維的結構。他論述說,某一特定語言中比較容易形成某些特定概念,但與此有別的其他概念則不易形成,因此該語言的使用者思考問題只會沿著這一條道而不會沿著那一條道進行。(5)沃夫進而相信某種類似語言決定論的觀點,其極端說法是:語言禁錮思維,語言的語法結構能對一個社會的文化產生深遠的影響。后來,這種觀點成為了知名的薩皮爾?沃夫假說,不過這個術語有點不妥。雖然薩皮爾和沃夫都強調各種語言之間的差異性,但薩皮爾自己從來沒有明確地表示過支持語言決定論的觀念。

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